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Blocking of ERK1 and ERK2 sensitizes human mesothelioma cells to doxorubicin

Arti Shukla1*, Jedd M Hillegass1, Maximilian B MacPherson1, Stacie L Beuschel1, Pamela M Vacek2, Harvey I Pass3, Michele Carbone4, Joseph R Testa5 and Brooke T Mossman1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 89 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405, USA

2 Department of Medical Biostatistics, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 105 Carrigan Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405, USA

3 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, 530 First Avenue, 9V, New York, NY 10016, USA

4 Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, 1236 Lauhala Street, 510, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA

5 Cancer Biology Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA, 19111, USA

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Molecular Cancer 2010, 9:314  doi:10.1186/1476-4598-9-314

Published: 15 December 2010

Abstract

Background

Malignant mesotheliomas (MM) have a poor prognosis, largely because of their chemoresistance to anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin (Dox). Here we show using human MM lines that Dox activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2), causally linked to increased expression of ABC transporter genes, decreased accumulation of Dox, and enhanced MM growth. Using the MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 and stably transfected shERK1 and shERK2 MM cell lines, we show that inhibition of both ERK1 and 2 sensitizes MM cells to Dox.

Results

U0126 significantly modulated endogenous expression of several important drug resistance (BCL2, ABCB1, ABCC3), prosurvival (BCL2), DNA repair (BRCA1, BRCA2), hormone receptor (AR, ESR2, PPARγ) and drug metabolism (CYP3A4) genes newly identified in MM cells. In comparison to shControl lines, MM cell lines stably transfected with shERK1 or shERK2 exhibited significant increases in intracellular accumulation of Dox and decreases in cell viability. Affymetrix microarray analysis on stable shERK1 and shERK2 MM lines showed more than 2-fold inhibition (p ≤ 0.05) of expression of ATP binding cassette genes (ABCG1, ABCA5, ABCA2, MDR/TAP, ABCA1, ABCA8, ABCC2) in comparison to shControl lines. Moreover, injection of human MM lines into SCID mice showed that stable shERK1 or shERK2 lines had significantly slower tumor growth rates in comparison to shControl lines after Dox treatment.

Conclusions

These studies suggest that blocking ERK1 and 2, which play critical roles in multi-drug resistance and survival, may be beneficial in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of MMs and other tumors.