Axin downregulates TCF-4 transcription via β-catenin, but not p53, and inhibits the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells
Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
Molecular Cancer 2010, 9:25 doi:10.1186/1476-4598-9-25Published: 2 February 2010
We previously reported that overexpression of Axin downregulates T cell factor-4 (TCF-4) transcription. However, the mechanism(s) by which Axin downregulates the transcription and expression of TCF-4 is not clear. It has been reported that β-catenin promotes and p53 inhibits TCF-4 transcription, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether β-catenin and/or p53 is required for Axin-mediated downregulation of TCF-4.
Axin mutants that lack p53/HIPK2 and/or β-catenin binding domains were expressed in lung cancer cells, BE1 (mutant p53) and A549 (wild type p53). Expression of Axin or AxinΔp53 downregulates β-catenin and TCF-4, and knock-down of β-catenin upregulates TCF-4 in BE1 cells. However, expression of AxinΔβ-ca into BE1 cells did not downregulate TCF-4 expression. These results indicate that Axin downregulates TCF-4 transcription via β-catenin. Although overexpression of wild-type p53 also downregulates TCF-4 in BE1 cells, cotransfection of p53 and AxinΔβ-ca did not downregulate TCF-4 further. These results suggest that Axin does not promote p53-mediated downregulation of TCF-4. Axin, AxinΔp53, and AxinΔβ-ca all downregulated β-catenin and TCF-4 in A549 cells. Knock-down of p53 upregulated β-catenin and TCF-4, but cotransfection of AxinΔβ-ca and p53 siRNA resulted in downregulation of β-catenin and TCF-4. These results indicate that p53 is not required for Axin-mediated downregulation of TCF-4. Knock-down or inhibition of GSK-3β prevented Axin-mediated downregulation of TCF-4. Furthermore, expression of Axin and AxinΔp53, prevented the proliferative and invasive ability of BE1 and A549, expression of AxinΔβ-ca could only prevented the proliferative and invasive ability effectively.
Axin downregulates TCF-4 transcription via β-catenin and independently of p53. Axin may also inhibits the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells via β-catenin and p53.